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Wild Bird - Specific. View ALl. Kid's Crafts. Needle Arts. Paint By Numbers. Traditional Crafts. Fountain Products. Power Wheels. Race Sets. Architectural Model Building Supplies.
Electric Trains - G Scale. Electric Trains - HO Scale. Electric Trains - N Scale. Electric Trains - O Scale. Oakridge Policy. Customer Login. TWO complete scale 27 ft.Christmas Atlas. TopHobbyTrains is a discount N Scale retailer that provides the Model Railroading community with great products and personalized service. TopHobbyTrains is a family business set up to enhance the modeling experience for both our customers and ourselves.
We carry all of the major manufacturers and have a large inventory of the latest releases ready to ship. We are always adding to our manufacture offerings. We want to be your primary source for N scale trains and model railroad equipment. TopHobbyTrains is much more than a discount store we also provide N Scale advice to modelers from beginners to veterans.
We are modelers ourselves having been in the hobby from the old Aurora Postage Stamp Trains days over 37 years. We also can install simulated MARS lighting in your loco.
We carry the entire product line for these manufacturers. Additionally we offer a conversion service on all locomotive and rolling stock items purchased from TopHobbyTrains. TopHobbyTrains accepts pre-order reservations for all upcoming releases so that our customers don't miss out on their favorite equipment and road names. We stock the latest releases and also have a good supply of prior years offerings.
We carry all the Digitrax controllers, boosters, power supplies and decoders. See our index for more model railroad information on things like electronics, track cleaning, and track layout. Please visit the links at the left to view the fine products we carry. Give us a try! Email Address: Password: You will be prompted to enter your password on the next page. Create an account Forgot Password? Email Address: Newsletter MailingList In Stock Circus Items!
Micro-Trains Wethered Cars. Price: MAP pricing put item in your cart for our low price. As always these are limited. Another great edition. This issue is packed with great ideas for your layout modeling. Order your now so that we can ship them out rigt after the holiday! Pre Order for August September delivery.
Pre-Order for November and December delivery. A must have for any Milwaukee fan. Only a few left. N Scale El Capitan sets are in stock.
Maxi IV Well Cars are in stock. Video of the loco in action.The downloadable paper kits for building backdrop structures for model railroads can be assembled using corflute recommendedcardstock an old cereal boxor foam board.
They can be printed out on a home computer for making N scale, OO gauge or HO scale background buildings. That makes them excellent value for money considering the cost of a pack comprising several individual download plans is considerably less than the cost of just one plastic model kit even excluding the added cost of postage and handling when purchased over the internet. The plans for these HO scale background buildings are available by download directly to your computer almost instantly after your purchase is processed.
You can these print out one or multiple copies of each plan depending on your personal requirements. The other big advantage is that the plans for these paper HO scale background buildings are photo-realistic and finely detailed to the highest quality. Far from it! The plans included highly detailed weathering and detailing to make the assembled printed models look incredibly true to life.
The buildings have cracks, and water marks, stains, signs of mold, and even rust. Just print the PDF plans onto ordinary paper and then glue the printed paper plans on to card from old cereal boxes, or better still, glue the paper plans directly onto corflute. It is also very sturdy so is perfect for constructing background buildings. Some model railroaders use foam board for constructing their HO scale background buildings.
Nowadays with the internet, model building paper printouts can be downloaded and printed on your hone printer. Watch the videos, but generally the printed sheets of paper get glued onto the corflute and once dried can be cut out with a sharp craft knife and a steel ruler to keep the cuts straight.
The glue tabs and corners can be bent and glued together. Watch one of the videos for a step by step demonstration. It is best to work off a solid flat surface with a cutting mat. I use a piece of 25mm MDF mm by mm and a craft cutting mat when constructing HO scale background buildings. A small metal square is used to keep the building square and the MDF keeps the printable building level as it is glued together.
The cuts require a sharp blade and you may need to change the blade quite often. Do not throw away the old blades as they can still be used to score the card for bending.
Care should be taken if you are cutting out the windows with the use of a pointed blade and then these can be glazed with some thin celluloid that can be purchased from your local hobby or craft shop.
You can even use the clear acetate from product boxes you would usually throw out. Cut it larger than required and glue in place taking care not to get glue on the window where it can be seen. Most of the printable paper plans include windows. Some have curtains or blinds in the windows and some panes of glass on background industrial appear to broken or cracked for extra realism.
Shop windows even include items on display. These printable HO scale background buildings are easy to make providing you follow the instructions.An architectural model is a type of scale model — a physical representation of a structure — built to study aspects of an architectural design or to communicate design ideas.
Depending on the purpose, models can be made from a variety of materials, including blocks, paper, and wood, and at a variety of scales. Architectural models have been in use since pre-history. The oldest models were found in Malta, such as at Tarxien Templesand are now at the archaeology museum in Valletta. A model by architect Lorenzo Winslow which he used to explore the structure of the Grand Staircase at the White House for his redesign of the East Wing. A model used for urban planning in the Buenos Aires Province.
Buildings are increasingly designed in software with CAD computer-aided design systems. Early virtual modelling involved the fixing of arbitrary lines and points in virtual space, mainly to produce technical drawings. Modern packages include advanced features such as databases of components, automated engineering calculations, visual fly-throughs, dynamic reflections, and accurate textures and colours.
As an extension to CAD computer-aided design and BIM building information modellingvirtual reality architectural sessions are also being adopted at increasingly faster rates.
As this technology enables participants to be immersed in a scale model, essentially experiencing the building before it is even being built.
Rough study models can be made quickly using cardboard, wooden blocks, polystyrene, foam, foam boards and other materials. Such models are an efficient design tool for three-dimensional understanding of a structure, space or form, used by architects, interior designers and exhibit designers. Common materials used for centuries in architectural model building were card stock, balsa woodbasswood and other woods.
A number of companies produce ready-made pieces for structural components e. Features such as vehicles, people figurines, trees, street lights and other are called "scenery elements" and serve not only to beautify the model, but also to help the observer to obtain a correct feel of scale and proportions represented by the model.
Increasingly, rapid prototyping techniques such as 3D printing and CNC routing are used to automatically construct models straight from CAD plans. An earthenware model of two residential towers, made during the Han Dynasty in China. Paper architectural models of a bungalowoffice and house. A wooden exterior model of the Royal Military College of Canada grounds. Painted wood model of the Volkshalle in Hitler 's planned Germania project. A cork model is an architectural model made predominantly of cork.
Cork was already used in the 16th century in Naples to make Christmas cribs. Crib making became extremely popular there in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
JPG were already active in Rome as manufacturers of cork models. Many cork models of classical monuments in Italy were made and sold to tourists during their Grand Tour. Cork, especially when carefully painted, was ideal to reproduce the weathered look of wall surfaces. As a rule, they were produced on a large scale the Colosseum in Aschaffenburg is three metres long and one metre high and with great, almost scientific precision.
Cork models were highly esteemed in the princely courts of the 18th century. Despite their fragility, cork models have often survived better than wooden models threatened by wood-destroying insects.
Tools & Media
Soane in London, who turned his home into a museum, Sir John Soane's Museumhousing a collection of 14 models in cork of Roman and Greek buildings. Chichi's cork models can be found at the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. See Wikipedia in German. The largest collection of cork models by Carl May with 54 pieces after war losses is in Aschaffenburg Schloss Johannisburganother large collection of his models is in the Staatliches Museum Schwerin.
Architectural models are being constructed at much smaller scale than their counterpart.See Grubb's test for outliers for more information. Creating statistical test is a process that can take just a few seconds or a few days depending on the size of the dataset used as input and on the workload of BigML's systems.
The statistical test goes through a number of states until its fully completed. Through the status field in the statistical test you can determine when the test has been fully processed and ready to be used to create predictions. Thus when retrieving a statisticaltest, it's possible to specify that only a subset of fields be retrieved, by using any combination of the following parameters in the query string (unrecognized parameters are ignored): Fields Filter Parameters Parameter TypeDescription fields optional Comma-separated list A comma-separated list of field IDs to retrieve.
To update a statistical test, you need to PUT an object containing the fields that you want to update to the statistical test' s base URL. Once you delete a statistical test, it is permanently deleted. If you try to delete a statistical test a second time, or a statistical test that does not exist, you will receive a "404 not found" response. However, if you try to delete a statistical test that is being used at the moment, then BigML.
To list all the statistical tests, you can use the statisticaltest base URL. By default, only the 20 most recent statistical tests will be returned.
You can get your list of statistical tests directly in your browser using your own username and API key with the following links.
You can also paginate, filter, and order your statistical tests. Models Last Updated: Monday, 2017-10-30 10:31 A model is a tree-like representation of your dataset with predictive power. You can create a model selecting which fields from your dataset you want to use as input fields (or predictors) and which field you want to predict, the objective field.
Each node in the model corresponds to one of the input fields. Each node has an incoming branch except the top node also known as root that has none. Each node has a number of outgoing branches except those at the bottom (the "leaves") that have none. Each branch represents a possible value for the input field where it originates. A leaf represents the value of the objective field given all the values for each input field in the chain of branches that goes from the root to that leaf.
When you create a new model, BigML.
You can also list all of your models. This can be used to change the names of the fields in the model with respect to the original names in the dataset or to tell BigML that certain fields should be preferred. All the fields in the dataset Specifies the fields to be included as predictors in the model. The presence of an asterisk means "or missing".
This means "x is missing" and "x is not missing" respectively. Example: true name optional String,default is dataset's name The name you want to give to the new model. Even if this an array BigML.You can also use curl to customize a new correlation. If you do not specify a range of instances, BigML. If you do not specify any input fields, BigML.
This Month's Highlights
Read the Section on Sampling Your Dataset to lean how to sample your dataset. Once a correlation has been successfully created it will have the following properties. The Correlations Object of test has the following properties. If p-value is greater than the accepted significance level, then then it fails to reject the null hypothesis, meaning there is no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups.
It has the following properties: The Chi-Square Object contains the chi-square statistic used to investigate whether distributions of categorical variables differ from one another. This test is used to compare a collection of categorical data with some theoretical expected distribution. The object has the following properties.
ANOVA is used to compare the means of numerical data samples. The ANOVA tests the null hypothesis that samples in two or more groups are drawn from populations with the same mean values. See One-way Analysis of Variance for more information. The object has the following properties: Creating correlation is a process that can take just a few seconds or a few days depending on the size of the dataset used as input and on the workload of BigML's systems.
The correlation goes through a number of states until its fully completed. Through the status field in the correlation you can determine when the correlation has been fully processed and ready to be used to create predictions.
Thus when retrieving a correlation, it's possible to specify that only a subset of fields be retrieved, by using any combination of the following parameters in the query string (unrecognized parameters are ignored): Fields Filter Parameters Parameter TypeDescription fields optional Comma-separated list A comma-separated list of field IDs to retrieve. To update a correlation, you need to PUT an object containing the fields that you want to update to the correlation' s base URL.
Once you delete a correlation, it is permanently deleted. If you try to delete a correlation a second time, or a correlation that does not exist, you will receive a "404 not found" response. However, if you try to delete a correlation that is being used at the moment, then BigML.
To list all the correlations, you can use the correlation base URL. By default, only the 20 most recent correlations will be returned. You can get your list of correlations directly in your browser using your own username and API key with the following links.
You can also paginate, filter, and order your correlations. Statistical Tests Last Updated: Monday, 2017-10-30 10:31 A statistical test resource automatically runs some advanced statistical tests on the numeric fields of a dataset.
The goal of these tests is to check whether the values of individual fields conform or differ from some distribution patterns. Statistical test are useful in tasks such as fraud, normality, or outlier detection. Note that both the number of tests within each category and the categories may increase in the near future.
You can also list all of your statistical tests. This can be used to change the names of the fields in the test with respect to the original names in the dataset or to tell BigML that certain fields should be preferred. All the fields in the dataset Specifies the fields to be considered to create the statistical test. The range of successive instances to build the test. Read the Section on to learn how to sample your dataset. Once a statistical test has been successfully created it will have the following properties.
The Statistical Tests Object of statistical test has the following properties. The Benford Result Object has the following properties. Benford's Law is a simple yet powerful tool allowing quick screening of data for anomalies. The Chi-Square Object contains the chi-square statistic used to investigate whether distributions of categorical variables differ from one another.
The Cho-Gaines Object has the following properties.Top-ranked Georgia visits No. Those other top 25 matchups also are intriguing: No. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Oregon Live LLC.
College football Week 11 predictions Three top 10 matchups are on the slate along with four other top 25 matchups as Week 11 of the 2017 season promises to shake up the College Football Playoff rankings next week.
The Argentine side were never truly in difficulty in this tournament, and against the side that won the title against them in the previous edition they will want to prove that was just a mistake. We are betting on Vargas and Sanchez to explode the Colombian defense and see their side through to the final.
However, the team that tripped up Brazil in their Copa America opener (0-0) can count on their defensive qualities to hold their own in the contest. Yet it might take more than this combination to get past a Columbian side well seasoned to international competitions. If their recent results and form on the pitch are anything to go by, it stands to reason that their quarter final should see them dispose with ease of a valiant but technically limited Venezualan side.
Their last two wins (3-0 and 5-0) showed the offensive potential of the team and reassured on its ability to keep a clean sheet. Based on their recent record, Mexico advance into this quarter final with more confidence than their opponents. Yet it is hard to imagine a team like like Chile not pulling itself together 3 games from a continental final. The title holders have the squad to make it to the end, its just a matter of when they realize their potential on the field. Do you want to see the action unfold live.
For more information, please refer to our Legal Mentions page. Find the betting preview, predictions and tips for all of the 2016 Copa America fixtures below: Betting on the Final: CurrentFinal: Argentina vs. The Eagles head into their Week 13 game against the Seahawks as the biggest road favorite to play in Seattle since the Baltimore Ravens were 6.
Despite the near-touchdown spread, this week has seen the most people picking against the Eagles since they went into Carolina in Week 6 as a three-point underdog, a game they won by five points. By comparison, the Birds were also six-point favorites the last time they played on the road (Week 11 at Dallas), and almost nobody outside of Cowboys fans was picking against them. With a win, the Birds will win 10 straight in a single season for the first time in franchise history.
The question is, will they. You can check that out, here. This is not the same Seahawks team you remember over the last five years. The Seahawks can no longer bulldoze defenses with Marshawn Lynch, and they're missing both Richard Sherman and Kam Chancellor on the back end defensively.